<source id="3oodw" ><sup id="3oodw" ></sup></source>

      1. <s id="3oodw" ><th id="3oodw" ><small id="3oodw" ></small></th></s>
        <i id="3oodw" ><optgroup id="3oodw" ></optgroup></i>

            <input id="3oodw" ><bdo id="3oodw" ><cite id="3oodw" ></cite></bdo></input>
            <delect id="3oodw" ><ruby id="3oodw" ></ruby></delect>

            <em id="3oodw" ><progress id="3oodw" ></progress></em><input id="3oodw" ></input>
            <strike id="3oodw" ></strike>



            THE BLUE PLANET REPORT FROM STELLAFANE PERSPECTIVE ON APOLLO HOW TO GAIN AND RETAIN NEW MEMBERS 5 APOLLO 11 YEARS 7.20.69 Published by the Astronomical League Vol. 71, No. 4 September 2019

            • The Astronomical League Magazine Vol. 71, No. 4
            • ISSN: 0034-2963
            • September 2019 A FEDERATION OF ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETIES A NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION To promote the science of astronomy
            • By fostering astronomical education,
            • by providing incentives for astronomical observation and research, and
            • By assisting communication among amateur astronomical societies. Astronomical League National Office: 9201 Ward Parkway, Suite 100, Kansas City, MO 64114 Contents 4 . President’s Corner 4 . Library Telescope Giveaway 5 . Library Telescope Update 5 . Full STEAM Ahead 6 . Observe the Moon Night 7 . Deep-Sky Objects 7 . Wanderers in the Neighborhood 9 . All Things Astronomical 10 . Telescope Targets for Halloween 10 . Celestial Savings Program 12 . Perspective on Apollo 14 . NCRAL Report 16 . Report from Stellafane 20 . ALCon 2019 Reports 23 . Coming Events 27 . New Award Programs 27 . Top Award Finishers 29 . Observing Awards 31 . National Young Astronomer Award Winners: Where Are They Now? Cover image: Andrew Klinger (Texas Astronomical Society) took this image of IC 1396 from a dark site in Texas using a William Optics GT81 (reduced to f/4.7, 382mm) with a ZWO ASI1600MM-Cool CMOS camera.
            • PAGE 7 PAGE 14 PAGE 16 skyandtelescope.com/australia2019 As you travel in comfort from Rome to Florence, Pisa, and Padua, visit the Vatican Observatory, the Galileo Museum, Arcetri Observatory, and more. Enjoy fine food, hotels, and other classic Italian treats. Extensions in Rome and Venice available. Travel Down Under to visit top observatories, including Siding Spring and “The Dish” at Parkes. Go wine-tasting, hike in nature reserves, and explore eclectic Sydney and Australia’s capital, Canberra. Plus: Stargaze under southern skies. Options to Great Barrier Reef and Uluru or Ayers Rock. skyandtelescope.com/italy5360彩票官网 See all S&T tours at skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-travel Uluru & Sydney Opera House: Tourism Australia; observatory: Winton Gibson Australian Observatories October 1–9, 2019 Astronomy Across Italy May 3–11, 5360彩票官网 From Famous Observatories to Solar Eclipse Take Your Pick From These Tours What’s Your Pleasure? Come along with Sky & Telescope to view this celestial spectacle in the lakes region of southern Argentina. Experience breathtaking vistas of the lush landscape by day — and the southern sky’s incomparable stars by night. Optional visit to the world-famous Iguazú Falls. Patagonian Total Solar Eclipse December 9–18, 5360彩票官网 skyandtelescope.com/argentina5360彩票官网 S&T’s 5360彩票官网 solar eclipse cruise offers 2 minutes, 7 seconds of totality off the coast of Argentina and much more: Chilean fjords and glaciers, the legendary Drake Passage, and four days amid Antarctica’s waters and icebergs. skyandtelescope.com/chile5360彩票官网 5360彩票官网 Eclipse Cruise: Chile, Argentina, and Antarctica Nov. 27–Dec. 19, 5360彩票官网 See more at YearInSpace.com 5360彩票官网 Calendar Enjoy this award-winning, large-format space calendar all year long!
            • Over 120 space images
            • Sky events, space history, & more!
            • Group discounts available 4h 4h 5h 5h 6h 6h 7h 7h +30° +30° +20° +20° +10° +10° 0° 0° –10° –10° –20° –20° Alnilam Alnitak Bellatrix Betelgeuse Meissa Mintaka Rigel Saiph α β χ1 χ2 δ ε φ1 φ2 ο1 ο2 π1 π2 π3 π4 π5 π6 CANIS MAJOR GEMINI LEPUS ORION TAURUS M42 M43 M78 -2 -1 MONOCEROS AURIGA ERIDANUS Fast Facts www.YearInSpace.com Winter’s Cosmic Hunter Orion Midwinter nights are dominated by the constellation Orion. This cosmic hunter, attended by his hunting dogs, Canis Major an d and Minor, follows Taurus the Bull across the heavens eac h night in endless pursuit. The showpiece of the constellation is the Orion Nebula (M42,shown here), a region of nebulosity and starbirth just 1,300 light-years away that is visible to the naked eye as a cloudy patch in Orion’s sword. Positioned astride the winter Milky Way, Orion is 5360彩票官网 t o prodigious starbirth, sprawling regions of nebulosity, and extreme stars. Here is a lo ok at the treasures within the borde rs of this icon of the winter sky. JENNIFERWISEMAN Asanundergrad , JenniferWis eman studiedphy sics atMIT,where shediscovered thecomet 114P/WisemanSkiff.Shethen earnedaPh.D. inastronom y atHarvard University.Dr. Wisemanstudie s starformin gregionsinour galaxy.Sheuse dradiotelesc opes tomapfilament sofdensedark gaswherestars formbehind the Orionnebula. Dr.Wisemanis now aseniorastrop hysicistatNAS A’s GoddardSpaceFli ghtCenterin Maryland,w heresheserves asthe seniorproj ectscientistfor the HubbleSpaceTe lescope. PROLIFIC PROPLYDS The Orion Nebula is 5360彩票官网 to dozens of protoplanetary disks (proplyds for short), the final incubators for newborn stars and their planetary systems. These disks surrounding nascent stars are evaporatin g or being distorted by radiation from other nearby stars. Some proplyds glow beca use of the new stars within, and others appea r dark because of bright matter beh ind them. The proplyds often form the basis for planetary systems orbiting the stars. ORION (Constellation) Location: Right Ascension 5 hr; Declination 5° north Area: 594 square degrees Symbol: The Hunter Notable Objects: M42 (Orion Nebula); M78 (planetary nebula); NG C 2024 (Flame Nebula) Barnard 33 (Horsehead Nebula); Trapezium (multiple star sy stem) Brightest Stars: α Orionis (Betelgeuse, Arabic for “armpit of Orion” a; β Orionis (Rigel, Arabic for “leg of Orion”) The famous Horsehead Nebula, a dark nebula also known as Barnard 33, is a notch of obscuring dust and gas located in front of the bright nebula IC 434, a clou d of glowing ionized hydrogen. It can be seen just sou th of the leftmost belt star, Alnitak. In visual wavelength s (below, top) the Horsehead appears as a silhouette. Infrared imaging from the Hubble Space Telesocpe, however, peers through the background matter, effectively rendering it invisible, and shows the clouds of the Horsehead as though illuminated directly (bottom).
            • HORSEHEAD OF A DIFFERENT COLOR Year In Space Fun Fact: Observers in the Southern Hemisphere see Orion “upside down” when it’s high in the sky; in this orientation, they visualize an asterism known as the Saucepan, whose angled handle is Orio n’s sword, and whose base is the three belt stars. Follow @YearInSpace on Social Media LIVE FAST, DIE YOUNG Orange Betelgeuse, Orion’s left shoulder, is one of the largest stars known, 20 times the mass of the Sun and 1,000 times its diameter—large e nough to extend beyond the orbit of Jupiter. The longwavelength image (left) is the most detail ed view of this unstable red giant, which is shedding material at a prodigious rate and is destined to die as a supernova. Past mass ejections have created a wave front, or bow shock, that travels ahead of the star (right) as it moves through space. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 March 5360彩票官网 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 January 5360彩票官网 February 5360彩票官网 February Sky Guide
            • Mercury , elusive as ever, can be most ea sily glimpsed low in the west-southwes t after sunset betwee n the 10th and 13th .
            • Venus is a stunn ing sight all month in the s outhwestern sky as night falls, appear ing about 30° high. Lo ok for a young crescent Moon passing near on the 27 th .
            • Mars , Jupiter, and Saturn form a diagonal lin e 30° long in the predawn southeas t. Mars is highest an d farthest right (west), Jupiter is brightest and in the middle, and Saturn is farthest left (east) and cl osest to the horizon. Th e Moon passes near Mars on the 18 th , Jupiter on the 19th , and Saturn on the 20 th . Vesta 0.5° south of Moon Full Moon 2:33 AM ET Mercury at greatest elongation (18° E) Moon at perigee Last Qtr Moon 5:17 PM ET Juno stationary Juno 0.6° south of Moon Mercury stationary Jupiter 0.9° north of Moon Pluto 0.7° north of Moon Saturn 1.7° north of Moon New Moon 10:32 AM ET Uranus 4° north of Moon First Qtr Moon 8:42 PM ET Mercury in inferior conjunction Moon at apogee Venus 6° north of Moon Mars 0.8° south of Moon 3 10 17 24 1966: Luna 9 lands on Moon 1984: STS-41B Challenger launched 1994: STS-60 Discovery launched 1995: STS-63 Discovery launched; Eileen shuttle pilot 2006: Astronauts aboardthe ISS launch SuitSat satellite 1959: Vanguard 2 launched 1965: Ranger 8 launched 1996: NEAR spacecraft launched 2007: THEMIS spacecraft launched 2009: Dawn spacecra Presidents’ Day 1968: Discovery o ed 1969: Mariner 6 launched 2007: Rosetta spac rs 2011: STS-133 Discovery launched 1990: Galileo spacecraft passes by Venus on its way to Jupiter 1992: First Atlas II launch 4 11 18 25 1906: Clyde Tombaugh born 1970: First Japanese satellite launched 1984: First shuttle landing at KSC 1997: STS-82 Discovery launched 2000: STS-99 Endeavour launched 2010: Solar Dynamics Observatory launched 1930: Pluto discovered 1970: HL-10 sets lifting body speed record 1977: ight of space shuttle Enterprise 6 20 13 27 5 19 1971: Alan Shepard hits on Moon 2018: First Falcon Heavy launch 1963: NASA selects contractor to build the Crawler Transporter 1974: Mars 5 enters orbit around Mars 2001: NEAR lands onasteroid Eros 1852: Johan Dreyer born 1937: Sigmund Jähn b to 1962: John Glenn becom to orbit Earth 1965: Ranger 8 impacts the Moon, returns photographs 1994: Clementine enters lunar orbit 1473: Nicolaus Copernicus born 1986: Mir space station launched 1965: First test of Apollo SPS engine 1967: Lunar Orbiter III launched 1971: Apollo 14 lands on Moon 1974: Mariner 10uses gravity of Venus to adjust its trajectory to Mercury 12 26 1897: Bernard Lyot born 1970: HL-10 sets lifting body altitude record of 90,300 feet 1842: Camille Flammarion born 1966: First Saturn 1B rocket launched 2 9 23 1948: Gerard Kuiper discovers Miranda, moon of Uranus 1965: Saturn SA-9 launched 1987: Supernova 1987a explodes 1990: Pioneer 11 leaves solar system 1997: Kvant module 1971: Apollo 14 returns from Moon, last post-mission quarantine 16 Groundhog Day 1 8 22 1956: Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) established 1959: First Titan Ilaunch 2003: Shuttle Columbiadestroyed during reentry; seven astronauts die 1828: Jules Verne born 1974: 84-day Skylab 4 mission ends, last crew to occupy Skylab 2010: STS-130 Endeavour launched 1564: Galileo Galilei born 1973: Pioneer 10 craft to pass through the asteroid belt 2013: Meteor explodes over Chelyabinsk, Russia, injuring 1,500 people 1966: Cosmos 110 launched; sets record for dogs in space (22 days) 1978: First Navstar GPS satellite launched 1996: STS-75 Columbialaunched 15 21 7 1984: First untethered spacewalk 1999: Stardust comet probe launched 2001: STS-98 Atlantis launched 2008: STS-122 Atlantis launched 1931: First liquid-fuel rocket launched in Europe 14 28 1972: Luna 20 launched 1980: Solar Max launched 1990: Voyager 1 solar system portrait 2000: NEAR orbitsasteroid Eros Valentine’s Day 1959: Discoverer 1 launched 1966: Gemini IX primary crew, Bassett and See, killed inplane crash 1990: STS-36 Atlantis launched 2007: New Horizons passes by Jupiter 29 1936: Jack Lousma born In 1880, the Orion Nebula became the first nebula ever photographed; since then, M42 has become the most photographed deep sky object.

            MORE THAN A HUNTER Orion’s hourglass shape has long conjured images of a human form, most durabl y that of a hunter, club poised, shield at the read y, and sword dangling from a belt of three evenly spaced stars. But other cultures have seen other patterns. North America’s Ojibwe people see Biboonkeoni ni, the Wintermaker; ancient Aztecs identified Orion ’s Belt as Mamalhuaztli, representing the wood sticks used to light a ceremonial fire; Polynesian ocean voyagers called it Heiheionakeiki because i t resembled the string of a cat’s cradle game. MOLECULAR CLOUD ATLAS Orion is 5360彩票官网 to the Orion Molecular Cloud, a complex of star forming regions spanning hundreds of light-years across.

            Many portions are visible in this image. The Orion Nebula appears below the belt stars and above Orion’s two feet; the Horsehead and Flame Nebulae surround the leftmost belt star; the Lambda Orionis region is at Orion’s “head”; and Barnard’s Loop nearly encircles the constellation in a nebulous arc. SPACE The Year in 5360彩票官网 Wall Calendar Save 25% $14.95 or less


            T Thank you, Horkheimer Charitable Fund, Zhumell Telescopes, and Celestron, for making this wonderful program possible! Congratulations to the 2019 winners: Miami Valley Astronomical Society, GLRAL St. George Astronomy Group, MARS Kansas Astronomical Observers, MSRAL Door Peninsula Astronomical Society, NCRAL Olympic Astronomical Society, NWRAL Atlanta Astronomy Club, SERAL Astronomers of Verde Valley, SWRAL LibraryTelescope Update As the winner of the 2108 member-at-large category for the Library Telescope Program, I am sending you this update. The Library Telescope was presented to the board of directors for the Amherst Public Library, Amherst, New York, on May 8, 2019.

            Amherst Library Director Roseanne Butler-Smith introduces the Library Telescope to a young patron. The telescope was prepared and presented by Astronomical League member-atlarge Jim Zappa, not pictured. The Library Telescope was sponsored and supported by Astronomical League member-at-large Jim Zappa. In addition to the telescope, Zappa donated books, constellation maps, a planisphere, and a map of lunar features. The Library Telescope has been in circulation since mid-May 2018, and feedback from the library staff is that the telescope is very popular with the library patrons. In fact, the library director, Roseanne Butler-Smith, has provided funding to procure two more Library Telescopes and make them available to the patrons of other branches of the Amherst library.

            Jim Zappa, AL Member-at-Large FullSTEAMAhead BILL BOGARDUS’S VISION FOR THE ASTRONOMICAL LEAGUE’S LEGACY At ALCon 2017 in Casper, Wyoming, Bill Bogardus offered me the youth coordinator position that had been empty for over a decade on the Astronomical League Council. I was honored and shocked at the same time, since I had just asked the council what were they doing to stop the “graying” of the clubs. Quite frankly, I thought I was going to be asked to leave the meeting. But Bill liked my suggestion about opening up the national conferences to families and students so that instead of just older kids coming with one parent, the whole family would choose an ALCon as a yearly summer event since it would include the younger children.

            At the Minneapolis ALCon in 2018, Bill continued to move forward on an ALCon Jr. family STEAM conference for 5360彩票官网. He supported funding the calendar that I created for the council to see what I was recommending. Bill and Ron Kramer worked together to secure the funding to make this calendar happen. It was agreed that the profits from the calendar would support activities and resources for families and students at the Albuquerque ALCon in 5360彩票官网. Bill told me he loved my passion and ideas and felt this was a great new venture for AL and encouraged me, to which I gave him a hug and kiss on the cheek and thanked him for his vision and support.

            So here we are, working on this 5360彩票官网 ALCon Jr. conference with the new AL 5360彩票官网 Calendar. Back when it was suggested, I was told to get NASA images and I said, “no, everyone does that – I want it to be amateur astronomers from the membership.” Last year’s calendar introduced me to the great imagers and sketchers from the League, and I was overwhelmed by their support for Bill’s vision. I was highly encouraged and so I continue to move the ball forward. You see, the graying of clubs is everywhere, and is noticeable in organizations that were once filled to the brim with amateur astronomers and telescope makers.

            The crowds are dwindling and the art of telescope making is losing its foothold in this hobby. As a board member of Sidewalk Astronomers, this has been difficult to watch over the past several years. Now with AL welcoming me on board, I am addressing the graying of the hobby as a whole by planning a telescope-making workshop at the AlCon Jr. in 5360彩票官网. After all, it does fit under the STEM/STEAM umbrella.

            Right now, Rob Teeter of Teeter’s Telescopes and the Astronomical Legaue have partnered to generate telescope making kits for students and families to assemble. Rob has spent hours figuring and calculating as well as offering to lead the ATM workshop. Rob will be cutting all the wooden pieces out of high-quality wood, individually pre-boxing all his parts, and shipping them to New Mexico when the time is right. (Little did I know that Rob won a telescope-making award at Stellafane when he was a student in the 1990s). In addition, Pat Murnaghan, of Coulter Optical, Odyssey, and e-Scopes has waived the $25 per kit shipping cost because of our bulk order.

            Pat told me he believes in and wants to support what we are trying to do. I told Pat that I hoped this would be a yearly activity for AL and create a “renaissance” of amateur telescope making in the United States.

            The goal is to offer these telescope kits at a reasonable price, but with quality mirrors, and solid wooden bases; we hope to fund half of the cost. Currently, the ATM telescope kits cost approximately $400, and we plan offer these telescope kits, ready to assemble, for $200. So, for every $1,000 of calendar profits, we will be able to cover five telescope kits. The Astronomical League has 750 calendars at the League Store. See the goal here? In addition to this ATM workshop, there will also be astronomy STEAM activities planned for elementary students and will also include an Astro Camp for Saturday Night during the adult banquet.

            I want to note that this telescope workshop is best suited for middle school and older students, parents with their upper elementary (thirdto fifth-grade) children, and teachers with students. Since we do not know how the calendar sales will go, this will be on a first-come, first-served basis with a slot assured with a payment for half of the telescope costs. Because the facilities are still being worked out, it is uncertain how many kits we will be able to assemble, but we are pursuing as many as we can fit comfortably in the space provided.

            I encourage those interested 1) students, to start mowing extra lawns, or babysitting, dog " President’sCorner The weather is turning cooler, the trees are changing color, and the summer constellations are getting lost in the glow of sunset.

            It must be time for autumn, which means ALCon 2019 is a recent memory and we are knee-deep in preparations for ALCon 5360彩票官网. The 2019 convention was a wonderful and unique experience, especially for first-time cruisers. Food was plentiful (actually, endless), and we enjoyed very calm seas and ports-of-call in Nassau and CocoCay (Bahamas). There were several great presentations and two interesting panel discussions which will benefit both the League and individual clubs and societies. Many thanks to Carroll Iorg, Maynard Pittendreigh, and others for a great time.

            I am pleased to report we are on a sound financial footing with an approved balanced budget for the next fiscal year. Three new observing programs are being added to our current offerings and we have a very bright future ahead. Of course, we can always use a few more volunteers. Also, if you have any ideas or comments, pass them along. We now can set our sights on Albuquerque, New Mexico, and ALCon 5360彩票官网. Mark your calendars for July 15 (council meeting), July 16 to 18 (conference days), and July 19 (VLA tour), plus a chance for your youngster to build their own 6-inch telescope with our very first ALCon Jr.

            STEAM conference. More details are still to come, but be sure to check out the advertisements in this issue of The Reflector. The online application form will be available soon.

            In addition, we are starting to plan the 2024 convention (another great solar eclipse is coming our way), and news will be forthcoming. It looks like we have found a new information technology manager, and he has been sitting under our noses all this time. John Martin, who works in IT at a major hospital (and is presently editor of the Reflector) has agreed to become our new IT and webmaster maven effective in the very near future. We can’t expect John to wear too many hats, so he will be retiring as editor. So, if you have publishing experience, including the use of the Adobe and Microsoft Office suites, and are willing to handle this critical task, please let me know at president@astroleague.org.

            This volunteer position is very important to the continued success of the League.

            We are also seeking someone with successful fundraising experience, at the local, corporate, and national levels, to help your League attain some future goals, including growth of the outreach programs, expanded website, monthly digital Reflector, collaboration with additional citizen science programs, and many more. We do everything we do with an operating budget of about $100,000. Imagine what we could do with an extra $50,000 or $100,000 in grants! Remember, this is your League and only you can help make it better.

            Ron Kramer, League President Editor’sNote As you may have noticed, the most recent issues of the Reflector have arrived late.

            We express our sincere apologies. The Reflector is managed and produced by a small team of Astronomical League volunteers. Producing each issue requires a significant amount of time and effort, and the availability of each member of our small staff can adversely affect our timeline. We are changing our processes and expanding the Reflector team with the goal of mitigating this issue and ensuring we deliver the Reflector to you on time. Thank you for your understanding and patience.

            LibraryTelescope Giveaway Through the vision of the Horkheimer Charitable Fund, the Astronomical League again offered a free Library Telescope to a lucky Astronomical League club in each region, plus one to a member-at-large. The Library Telescope consists of a 4.5-inch Dobsonian Z114 Zhumell reflector fitted with an 8–24 mm zoom eyepiece and a nameplate commemorating the late Jack Horkheimer. The value of this opportunity is approximately $200; the potential is enormous. The Library Telescope program was initiated ten years ago by the New Hampshire Astronomical Society and has grown into a nationwide presence.

            A club donates an easy-to-use portable telescope with quality optics and a sturdy mount to their local library. Patrons can then check it out as they do books.

            • QUARTERLY PUBLICATION OF THE ASTRONOMICAL LEAGUE Issued by the Astronomical League in March, June, September, and December, Reflector (ISSN: 0034-2963) is sent directly, either by postal mail or via a digital link, to each individual member of its affiliate societies and to members-at-large as a benefit of League membership. Individual copies of Reflector are available at the following subscription rates, payable to the League’s national office. PAPER SUBSCRIPTIONS: USA & possessions: $3.00 each or $10.00 per year (4 issues) Canada: $5.00 each or $16.00 per year Mexico: $6.00 each or $22.00 per year Other countries: $7.00 each or $25.00 per year DIGITAL SUBSCRIPTIONS: All countries, possessions, and territories: $10.00 per year REFLECTOR AND CLUB ROSTER DEADLINES March issue January 1 June issue April 1 September issue July 1 December issue October 1 Written and graphic material from this publication may be reprinted only for non-profit benefit of interested parties, provided specific credit is given to the writer(s), Reflector, and the Astronomical League. Any other use of material, including graphics and photographs, is subject to express permission from the Editor and the Astronomical League. NATIONAL OFFICERS President Ron Kramer 9520 Dragonfly Avenue
            • Las Cruces, NM 88012 520-500-7295
            • president@astroleague.org Vice President Carroll Iorg 9201 Ward Parkway, Suite 100
            • Kansas City, MO 64114; 816-444-4878
            • vicepresident@astroleague.org Secretary Bryan Tobias Astronomical League National Headquarters 9201 Ward Parkway, Suite 100
            • Kansas City, MO 64114 astronomerbryan@gmail.com or secretary@astroleague.org Treasurer Bill Dillon 190 Settlers Road
            • Fincastle, VA 24090 703-674-8484
            • treasurer@astroleague.org Executive Secretary Maynard Pittendreigh 3208 Little Oak Way
            • Orlando, FL 32812 770-237-2071
            • executivesecretary@astroleague.org National Office Mike Stoakes, Office Coordinator Astronomical League National Headquarters 9201 Ward Parkway, Suite 100
            • Kansas City, MO 64114 816-DEEP-SKY National office: leagueoffice@astroleague.org Society rosters: rosters@astroleague.org League sales: leaguesales@astroleague.org National Observing Program Coordinators Cliff Mygatt Aaron B. Clevenson cliffandchris@wavecable.com aaron@clevenson.org Astronomical League Historian Mike Stewart 913-240-1238
            • AL_Historian@kc.rr.com LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Send to editor@astroleague.org with subject line “letter to editor” REFLECTOR STAFF Managing Editor Ron Kramer Mobile: 520-500-7295 managingeditor@astroleague.org Editor John Martin editor@astroleague.org Photo Editor Dan Crowson photoeditor@astroleague.org Assistant Editor Kristine Larsen larsen@ccsu.edu Assistant Editor Kevin Jones j11.kevin@gmail.com Design/Production Michael Patterson michael.patterson@stellafane.org Advertising Representative Carla Johns 970-567-8878 advertising@astroleague.org Coming Events Editor John Wagoner astrowagon@verizon.net 9

            6 Night Sky Network program, you can schedule your upcoming event to the NSN’s calendar and it will be automatically cross-posted as an International Observe the Moon Night event – just make sure that “Moon” is in the title and that the event is public. If October 5 is inconvenient, you can host an event any date between September 28 and October 13. The times, dates, and locations of public events will appear on the International Observe the Moon Night event map; private events can also be registered and will appear on the map without specific information.

            If you prefer to visit rather than host, and want to attend an event, or even drop in on several events, you can check out the map to find one near you.

            Or you can mark your observing spot on the map as an individual lunar observer. Please share your takes, photos, and experiences using #ObserveTheMoon on social media. Find everything you need to know on the official International Observe the Moon Night website, moon.nasa.gov/observe. —David Prosper and Andrea Jones Deep-SkyObjects THE BEST STAR CLUSTER IN PEGASUS One of the most recognizable constellations in the autumn evening sky is Pegasus. It is located far from the Milky Way and high above Polaris when it transits, and its main stars are easy to see, even with moderate light pollution.

            The constellation’s most notable asterism is the Great Square, formed by the stars Markab, Sheat, Algenib, and Alpheratz. Alpheratz is technically part of the constellation Andromeda, but some older star charts give Alpheratz the dual designation of Alpha Andromedae and Delta Pegasi. Pegasus doesn’t contain a plethora of bright deep-space objects. Almost all of the 319 New General Catalog (NGC) objects in the constellation are galaxies. Of those, only 15 are brighter than magnitude 12, and only one is brighter than magnitude 10. That outlier is NGC 7331, the Deer Lick Galaxy, a decent magnitude 9.5 spiral.

            Many of the remaining galaxies are brighter than magnitude 15. So anyone with a 14-inch or larger telescope in dark skies can score many of them, including the famous Stephan’s Quintet. There are three open clusters in Pegasus, all loosely scattered and unimpressive. However, there is one very impressive globular cluster in Pegasus that more than makes up for the constellation’s lack of open clusters – M15. The French astronomer Jean-Dominique Maraldi discovered M15 in 1746 while searching for the de Chéseaux comet. His country5360彩票官网man Charles Messier independently found M15 in 1764 and added it to his now-famous catalog.

            M15 is easy to find. Start at the magnitude 3.5 star Baham (Theta Pegasi) and go 7.5 degrees northwest to the magnitude 2.4 star Enif (Epsilon Pegasi). Continue in the same direction another four degrees to M15. A side note: although Enif is given the designation Epsilon Pegasi, it is actually the brightest star in the constellation. For most constellations, the bright stars are labeled in descending order of brightness: Alpha (the brightest), Beta (the next brightest), Gamma, Delta, and so on. Enif is a tenth of a magnitude brighter than Alpha Pegasi, also called Markab. This assumes you ignore “Delta Pegasi,” which is brighter than all of them, but really isn’t in Pegasus.

            It’s a confusing constellation! M15 is a beautiful star cluster and is one of the richer and more compact globulars. The cluster’s integrated magnitude is 6.2 and it has a diameter of 18 arcminutes. It can be spied in binoculars but will require a 3- to 4-inch telescope with good magnification to begin to resolve the individual stars. An 8-inch telescope will resolve it into countless stars and reveal its intense brilliant central core.

            M15 contains scores of RR Lyrae class variable stars. These stars enable M15’s distance to be determined fairly accurately. The cluster lies 33,600 light-years away. This distance shows the true diameter of the cluster to be 175 light-years. Approximately 100,000 stars reside in that spherical region of space, with a brightness equivalent to 360,000 Suns. The cluster also contains the first planetary nebula discovered in a globular star cluster, Pease 1. The nebula was discovered by Francis Pease in 1927 using a photographic plate made with the 100-inch telescope at Mt. Wilson. My image of M15 was taken with an 8-inch f/6.4 Ritchey–Chrétien reflector using an SBIG ST-2000XCM CCD camera.

            The exposure was 30 minutes. In the image, north is up and east to the left. The image spans 25 arcminutes in right ascension, and most of the stars in the image belong to the globular cluster. The brightest star in the image (with the diffraction spikes) is a magnitude 7.6 foreground star, SAO 107179, located approximately 200 light-years away. The faintest stars in the image are magnitude 17. The yellow arrow points to the almost-resolved planetary nebula Pease 1, estimated magnitude 15.5. It can be imaged with an 8-inch telescope using narrowband filters or seen in a 14-inch telescope under dark skies with an O-III nebula filter, but it takes a 32-inch telescope to resolve any detail in the nebula! All telescope and binocular owners should visit M15 this fall.

            Those with large light buckets will enjoy the challenge of capturing its planetary nebula!

            Dr. James R. Dire Kauai Educational Association for Science and Astronomy Wanderersinthe Neighborhood THE BLUE PLANET With the demotion of Pluto to a dwarf planet, Neptune once again became the most distant planet from the Sun in our Solar System. The color of this blue planet is not due to liquid water like on the Earth, but from trace amounts of methane and other substances in its hydrogen and helium atmosphere. Neptune is the Solar System’s third most massive planet after Jupiter and Saturn. These three, along with Neptune’s neighbor Uranus, make up the local population of gas giant planets.

            Neptune is the densest of all the gas giants. Its mass of 17 times the mass of Earth is just slightly more than that of similar Uranus. The gravitational pull of Neptune’s higher mass causes its atmosphere to be more compressed than that of Uranus, making Neptune physically smaller than its twin. " walking, and so on; 2) parents, hold a garage sale; and 3) teachers with students, encourage your parent-teacher associations to host a bake sale specifically for a school telescope. Remember, this is only a plan and won’t become reality unless the 750 Astronomical League 5360彩票官网 Calendars fly out of the League Store.

            To club presidents: please consider placing a bulk order for your club members and even to sell to attendees at your star parties since these are packed with astronomical information and trivia. I was informed that if they sell quickly, we might have an option to order more. I personally buy a dozen calendars for my family and close friends for Christmas off the Internet. But not anymore –they get this one with all the information they always ask me about throughout the year. I also sell these at the star parties I attend and my Broken Arrow Sidewalk Astronomy sites every month.

            So, in the spirit of Bill Bogardus and his vision, I want to thank you in advance for your support in fulfilling his legacy. Full STEAM ahead! —Peggy Walker NightSkyNetwork CELEBRATING INTERNATIONAL OBSERVE THE MOON NIGHT Look skyward and find the Moon on Saturday, October 5, 2019! You’ll join millions around the world celebrating our planet’s nearest neighbor during the 10th annual International Observe the Moon Night. Anyone can participate anywhere, and there are many ways to join the festivities. Individuals can attend a nearby Moon viewing party, host their own observing session, or simply take a quick peek up during their busy day to appreciate our neighbor’s quiet beauty.

            International Observe the Moon Night is one of the most successful annual outreach events in the world. The Moon is the most easily observed object in our skies, and, unlike almost any other object, it can be seen both day and night, in even the most severely light polluted skies. Not only is the Moon large and bright, it rewards observers with its regularly changing appearance throughout the month. While most astronomers find the Moon’s brilliance in the night sky a nuisance, since its light drowns out observations of faint fuzzies, the Moon’s brightness is a strength for outreach. Its brilliance makes it a perfect object to share with the public, especially folks who have never looked through a telescope, or even binoculars.

            Seeing the fine details in a galaxy, cluster, or nebula takes experience as an observer, but the Moon shines so brightly through an eyepiece that its details are much easier for novices to identify. Plus, you can tell if your telescope’s visitor has a good view by spotting the moonshine glinting from their eyes.

            This year’s International Observe the Moon Night is a great opportunity to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Apollo program with your family, friends, and community. Celebrate humanity’s first steps on another world and share the inspiring story of how we went there while observing the Moon. Share your own story of how the Apollo program touched your life and ask others about their memories of that historic time. You can even share your Apollo story with NASA and hear others’ stories at nasa.gov/apollostories. Discussions of Apollo’s triumph often turn to hopes and dreams for future lunar exploration.

            People often ask why humans haven’t gone back, and while the answer is a bit complicated, we can now answer that we will be going back, and soon! You can discuss the Artemis program – NASA’s plan to return to the Moon with crewed missions in orbit and on the surface. Humans have robotic emissaries there, right now, that are helping us prepare for the next set of boot prints in that dusty soil. NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is currently in orbit and has been mapping the lunar surface in rich detail for 10 years. Other countries and agencies have successfully sent orbiters, landers, and rovers, including Russia, Japan, India, China5360彩票官网, and the member nations of the European Space Agency.

            It’s getting busy on the Moon, and with humans returning in just a few years it’s bound to get even more exciting. So how can you participate in International Observe the Moon Night for 2019? Find recommendations and resources on the official website, moon.nasa.gov/observe. There is an observer’s map of the Moon in the phase it will be on October 5, featuring areas of interest visible with the naked eye and through binoculars and telescopes. There are slide sets presenters can use, activity recommendations, event evaluation materials, and more. The Night Sky Network recently released a new toolkit of Moon resources in honor of Apollo 11 that your club may find handy at observing events at bit.ly/nsnmoon, and additional Moon-related NSN resources are at bit.ly/nsnmoonnight.

            You can register your event by adding it to the official International Observe the Moon Night event map. If your club participates in the Griffith Observatory was host to a large public star party held by the Los Angeles Astronomical Society during International Observe the Moon Night 2018. Photo by Todd Kunioka Oklahoma City Astronomy Club member Peter Khor helped visitors “Walk on the Moon” during their International Observe the Moon Night event by sending live video from his telescope’s eyepiece to a projector pointing to the ground from a tall tripod.


            the Sun, Neptune is an active place that astronomers will observe as long as we have the facilities to do so.

            Hubble spied a new dark spot forming in 2018–2019. Hubble will keep watching to see how it will evolve and how long it will last. —Berton Stevens AllThings Astronomical HEAVY METAL PLANET FRAGMENT SURVIVES DESTRUCTION FROM DEAD STAR Afragment of a planet that has survived the death of its star has been discovered by University of Warwick astronomers in a disk of debris formed from destroyed planets, which the star ultimately consumes.

            The ironand nickel-rich planetesimal survived a system-wide cataclysm that followed the death of its host star, SDSS J122859.93+104032.9. Believed to have once been part of a larger planet, its survival is all the more astonishing as it orbits closer to its star than previously thought possible, going around it once every two hours. The discovery, reported in the journal Science, is the first time that scientists have used spectroscopy to discover a solid body in orbit around a white dwarf, using subtle variations in the emitted light to identify additional gas that the planetesimal is generating.

            Using the Gran Telescopio Canarias in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, the scientists studied a debris disk orbiting a white dwarf 410 light-years away, formed by the disruption of rocky bodies composed of elements such as iron, magnesium, silicon, and oxygen – the four key building blocks of the Earth and most rocky bodies. Within that disk they discovered a ring of gas streaming from a solid body, like a comet’s tail. This gas could either be generated by the body itself or by evaporating dust as it collides with small debris within the disk.

            The astronomers estimate that this body has to be at least a kilometer in size, but could be as large as a few hundred kilometers in diameter, comparable to the largest asteroids known in our Solar System.

            White dwarfs are the remains of stars like our Sun that have burned all their fuel and shed their outer layers, leaving behind a dense core which slowly cools over time. This particular star has shrunk so dramatically that the planetesimal orbits within its sun’s original radius. Evidence suggests that it was once part of a larger body further out in its solar system and is likely to have been a planet torn apart as the star began its cooling process.

            Lead author Dr. Christopher Manser, a research fellow in the Department of Physics, said, “The star would have originally been about two solar masses, but now the white dwarf is only 70 percent of the mass of our Sun. It is also very small – roughly the size of the Earth – and this makes the star, and in general all white dwarfs, extremely dense. “The white dwarf’s gravity is so strong – about 100,000 times that of the Earth – that a typical asteroid will be ripped apart by gravitational forces if it passes too close to the white dwarf.” Professor Boris Gaensicke, coauthor from the Department of Physics, adds, “The planetesimal we have discovered is deep into the gravitational well of the white dwarf, much closer to it than we would expect to find anything still alive.

            That is only possible because it must be very dense and/ or very likely to have internal strength that holds it together, so we propose that it is composed largely of iron and nickel.

            If it was pure iron it could survive where it lives now, but equally it could be a body that is rich in iron but with internal strength to hold it together, which is consistent with the planetesimal being a fairly massive fragment of a planet core. If correct, the original body was at least hundreds of kilometers in diameter because it is only at that point planets begin to differentiate – like oil on water – and have heavier elements sink to form a metallic core.” The discovery offers a hint as to what planets may reside in other solar systems, and a glimpse into the future of our own.


            Manser said, “As stars age, they grow into red giants, which ‘clean out’ much of the inner part of their planetary system. In our Solar System, the Sun will expand up to where the Earth currently orbits, and will wipe out Earth, Mercury, and Venus. Mars and beyond will survive and will move further out. “The general consensus is that 5–6 billion years from now, our Solar System will be a white dwarf in place of the Sun, orbited by Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the outer planets, as well as asteroids and comets. Gravitational interactions are likely to happen in such remnants of planetary systems, meaning the bigger planets can easily nudge the smaller bodies onto an orbit that takes them close to the white dwarf, where they get shredded by its enormous gravity.

            Learning about the masses of asteroids, or planetary fragments that can reach a white dwarf can tell us something about the planets that we know must be further out in this system, but we currently have no way to detect. “Our discovery is only the second solid planetesimal found in a tight orbit around a white dwarf, with the previous one found because debris passing in front of the star blocked some of its light – that is the transit method widely used to discover exoplanets around Sun-like stars. To find such transits, the geometry under which we view them has to be very finely tuned, which means that each system observed for several hours mostly leads to nothing.

            The spectroscopic method we developed in this research can detect close-in planetesimals without the need for a specific alignment.” Manser and Gaensicke were supported by the European Research Council under the European Union’s research and innovation program (grant agreement 320964).

            University of Warwick Press Release Neptune is the only planet not visible to the naked eye, with an apparent magnitude of 7.7. Even being 3.88 times the diameter of the Earth, Neptune’s remoteness provides a telescopic disk that is only 2.4 arcseconds across at its largest. Earthbound views of Neptune never showed any detail in its atmosphere – it was just a blue dot. In 1989, the Voyager 2 spacecraft on its “Grand Tour” of the outer Solar System made a flyby of Neptune, providing the first close-up views of its atmosphere. Uranus had not shown Voyager 2 much activity, and with Neptune receiving less of the Sun’s energy than Uranus, it was thought that Neptune would also have a bland disk.

            But Voyager’s images showed that all was not quiet on Neptune. The most obvious feature was a spot in the southern hemisphere dubbed the Great Dark Spot, similar to Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. Neptune’s atmosphere also contained cloud streams, bands and smaller storms, showing that it was active despite the weak sunlight. While Voyager 2 has been the only spacecraft to visit Neptune, when the Hubble Space Telescope became operational, astronomers began regularly monitoring Neptune’s atmosphere. They found dark spots like the Great Dark Spot were common. These anticyclonic storms (clockwise in the northern hemisphere, counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere) churn up darker material from deeper in the atmosphere as they move with the upper atmosphere.

            Unlike the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, which has been around for over two hundred years, Neptune’s dark spots only last for a few years. A dark spot found in 2015, for example, was 3100 miles long at discovery, but by 2018, it had moved toward the south pole, had shrunk to only 2300 miles long, and was fading.

            Most of Neptune’s storms have been found in its southern hemisphere, because it is now summer there. Neptune’s poles are tilted 28.3 degrees to the ecliptic, so Neptune goes through seasons like the Earth. The southern hemisphere has been tilted toward the Sun since 1962, and this tilt reached a maximum in 2003. So, for all the time we have been able to observe Neptune, the southern hemisphere has been in spring and summer. As the planet continues around its orbit, summer will move to the northern hemisphere and we can expect to see dark spots form there. The spots and clouds ride on one of three jet streams circling Neptune.

            There is a westward jet stream around the equator where the winds howl at 900 miles per hour. Near each pole, an eastward jet stream travels at over 500 miles per hour. Neptune has the fastest winds measured in the entire Solar System, with winds speeds in the storms reaching 1300 miles per hour, an almost supersonic speed in Neptune’s atmosphere.

            Neptune’s atmosphere is only the thin top layer of the planet. At its heart is a rocky core, probably composed of silicates and solid nickel-iron. The mantle sitting on the core is a hot fluid of water, ammonia, and methane forming a water-ammonia ocean. This fluid has a high electrical conductivity and probably provides the electric current to form Neptune’s magnetic field. The top of the mantle is an ocean of liquid carbon with hailstones of diamond falling from the sky. The diamond hailstones form when methane higher in the atmosphere decomposes and the carbon atoms are compressed at high pressure to form diamonds.

            The atmosphere over the carbon ocean consists of 80 percent molecular hydrogen and 19 percent atomic helium, with traces of methane to give Neptune its color. Uranus’s atmosphere has a similar composition but it is only a pale blue. The vivid blue of Neptune must be due to an additional trace component of its atmosphere. Higher clouds in Neptune’s atmosphere cast their shadows on the lower, more solid cloud deck. The lower cloud deck is composed of chemicals like ethane and ethyne that are formed when ultraviolet light from the Sun breaks down methane. Most of the action in the atmosphere occurs between thirty and seventy miles above the cloud deck.

            The atmosphere is somewhat warmer than would be expected if it was only receiving energy from the Sun. There is an internal energy source, probably gravitational, that adds energy to Neptune’s atmosphere and helps power the storms we see from time to time.

            While it is hard to see this gas giant far from 019 A planetary fragment orbits the star SDSS J122859.93+104032.9, leaving a tail of gas in its wake. Credit: University of Warwick/Mark Garlick The Hubble Space Telescope took these images of a dark spot on Neptune’s surface as it slowly shrank over two years. In 2015, the spot’s long axis was 3100 miles long. By 2017, the spot had moved further south and lost some of its energy, shrinking to only 2300 miles long. It also lost some of its color. Image credit: M.H. Wong and A.I. Hsu (UC Berkeley)/NASA/ESA


            TelescopeTargets forHalloween One of my fondest childhood memories is the Halloween tradition of trick-ortreating.

            Halloween falls on October 31, and the Sun sets early. I started to show people objects through the telescope on Halloween about 30 years ago. Since then, thousands of children and their parents have received close-up views of the Moon, Jupiter, Saturn, Venus and other objects through the telescope. On a few occasions, children have also had a chance to view our Sun before sunset using a safe Sunspotter. In my community, many children start trickor-treating an hour before sunset and continue until about three hours after sunset. There is also a lot of ambient light from streetlights and other sources in my town.

            Therefore, I have selected bright objects for viewing since they are the easiest to find and see.

            What is the best object to show children? Based on my many years of experience, the Moon ranks first, followed by Saturn. I prefer the Moon because it is easy to find when lights are around and children are more likely to see it. Furthermore, inexperienced observers are more likely to see a big bright Moon in the eyepiece than a small planetary disk. One may even show the Moon during the day, but twilight or nighttime viewing is better. Because of its brightness, children may also see Venus during the daytime. Jupiter, Saturn, and Mars are visible starting in twilight. For the next few Halloweens, Jupiter and Saturn are well-placed for evening viewing.

            The best opportunity to show Mars will be in 5360彩票官网 when it is nearly at opposition. One may show children the double star Albireo or a terrestrial object in the distance as well. One of the distant objects I have shown in the daytime is the steeple at the top of the First Methodist Church in Barnesville, Georgia. Table 1 lists what I consider the best target and an alternative for Halloween viewing between 2019 and 2030.

            On a few occasions, I have set up a Sunspotter during the daytime for those early trick-or-treat children. One needs a clear western horizon to show the Sun. The Sun is more interesting to view when sunspots are visible. Sunspot maximum should happen around 2024. Irecommend a few things to those who want to do public outreach on Halloween. Firstly, children sometimes grab or touch the eyepiece, so use an inexpensive one. I gently warn children not touch the telescope. In my area, parents have learned to tell their children not to touch the telescope. In some cases, a child will grab the eyepiece, causing the telescope to shift.

            For this reason, a Dobsonian telescope with a good finderscope is a good choice for Halloween outreach. A small stool or booster ladder may help very small viewers. Sometimes, parents hold their children up to look through the eyepiece. One may also place a monitor-connected video camera in the telescope and people can easily see the object on a screen. Finally, I have my bag of goodies next to my telescope so that the children get two treats! —Richard W. Schmude Jr.

            T 11 through Year In Space Fun Fact: On May 27th 2019, a Soyuz 2-1b rocket carrying a Glosnass-M communications satellite was struck by lightning 10 seconds after its launch from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome; the lightning strike had no apparent effect on the Soyuz or its payload. Follow @YearInSpace on social media SOYUZ-U ROCKET Manufacturer: Ts-SKB Progress Height: 51 m (168 ft) Main Stage Diameter: 3 m (10 ft) Mass: 313,000 kg (690,000 lbs) Liftoff Thurst: 4,144 kN (928,000 lbs) Payload Capacity to Low Earth Orbit: 6,900 kg (152,00 lbs) Launch Sites: Baikonur, Plesetsk First Launch: 18 May 1973 Last Launch: 22 February 2017 Total Launches: 786 Total Successes: 765 (97.3%) Fast Facts Russian Old Reliable Soyuz Rocket With a heritage that predates the Space Age, the Russian Soyuz family of rockets is the oldest and most flown rocket in the world.

            Evolved from Soviet R-7 ICBMs of the 1950s, the first Soyuz flew in 1966 and derivatives of that rocket continue to send people, cargo, and satellites into space. Well over 1,000 Soyuz rockets have thundered aloft since its debut. The basic design of the Soyuz, with its distinctive quartet of conical boosters, has changed very little over the decades, allowing this reliable vehicle to be economically mass produced. The Soyuz is currently the only vehicle capable of launching crew to the International Space Station. www.YearInSpace.com — free weekly newsletter SERGEI KOROLEV Born in 1907 in the Russian Empire, Sergei Korolev was an aeronauti cal engineer who, more than anyone else, shaped the missile and space programs of the former Soviet Union in the 1950s and 60s.

            To keep his identity a secret, he was known publicly only as the “Chief Designer. ” Korolev led the developme nt of R-7 ballistic missile and later Soyuz rockets, as well as the first satellite s and human spaceflig hts.

            • He also led the ultimatel y unsuccess ful Soviet lunar landing program. Korolev died in 1966. When a Soyuz is not ferrying crew to the International Space Station (which it does three or four times a year), it delivers Progress resupply ships to the ISS; launches communications, Earth observation, and meteorological satellites; and sends interplanetary probes on their way, such as Mars Express and Venus Express (shown here). SPACE TRUCK Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 February 5360彩票官网 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 December 2019 January 5360彩票官网 January Sky Guide
            • Mercury appears at dusk, low in the west-southwestern sky at month’s end.
            • Venus is prominent in the southwestern sky as night falls. On the 27th and 28th , a young crescent Moon passes below it.
            • Mars shines in the southeast in the hours before sunrise. The bright red star to its right is Antares, in the constellation Scorpio. A waning crescent Moon is close by on the 20th
            • Jupiter is low in the southeast just before sunrise at month’s end. Look for a slim crescent Moon near it on the 22nd . Uranus 5° north of Moon Quadrantid meteor shower Vesta stationary Moon at apogee First Qtr Moon 11:45 PM ET Quadrantid meteor shower Earth at perihelion Uranus stationary Mercury in superior conjunction Full Moon 2:21 PM ET (Penumbral eclipse) Saturn in conjunction with Sun Ceres in conjunction with Sun Moon at perigee Mars 5° north of Antares Last Qtr Moon 7:58 AM ET Mars 2° south of Moon Jupiter 0.4° north of Moon New Moon 4:42 PM ET Venus 0.08° south of Neptune Neptune 4° north of Moon Venus 4° north of Moon Moon at apogee Uranus 5° north of Moon 6 13 20 27 1998: Lunar Prospector launched 1573: Simon Marius born 1930: Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin born 1966: Apollo A-004 launched; first flight test of CSM hardware 1978: Progress 1 launched Martin Luther King, Jr. Day 1829: Isaac Roberts born 1967: Apollo 1 astronauts White, Grissom, and Chaffee die in cockpit fire on launch pad during test 1610: Galileo discovers Ganymede, moon of Jupiter 1978: NASA selects first women astronauts 1993: STS-54 Endeavour launched 7 14 21 28 1610: Galileo discovers Callisto, Europa, Io 1964: First power tool for space tested 1968: Surveyor 7 launched 1975: Earth Resources Technology Satellite is renamed Landsat 2005: Huygens probe lands on Titan 2008: MESSENGER first Mercury flyby 2018: Rocket Lab Electron launch vehicle, first orbital launch from New Zealand 1611: Johannes Hevelius born 1986: Space shuttle Challenger explodes, killing all seven astronauts 2 9 23 16 30 1 8 22 1839: Thomas Henderson publishes distance to Alpha Centauri 1968: Surveyor 7 lands on Moon 1990: STS-32 Columbia launched 1973: Luna 21 lander and Lunokhod 2 rover land on Moon 1976: Helios 2 launched 2006: Stardust spacecraft returns samples of comet dust 1969: First docking of two manned spacecraft (Soyuz 5 and Soyuz 4) 2003: STS-107 Columbia launched 1968: Apollo 5 launched 1978: First automatic resupply ship docking (Progress 1) 1992: STS-42 Discovery launched 1998: STS-89 Endeavour launched 2003: Pioneer 10’s last signal to Earth 1801: Giuseppe Piazzi discovers dwarf planet Ceres New Year’s Day 1587: Johann Fabricius born 1942: Stephen Hawking born 1973: Luna 21 & Lunokhod 2 launched 1987: Challenger debris buried 15 29 1964: SA-5 launched; first Saturn I Block II rocket 1989: Phobos 2 enters orbit around Mars 1964: Ranger 6 launched 1900: Leslie Peltier born 1920: Isaac Asimov born 1959: Luna 1 is first spacecraft to leave Earth’s gravitational field 1972: Mariner 9 begins mapping Mars 2004: Stardust flies by Comet Wild 2 5 12 26 19 1747: Johann Bode born 1851: Jacobus Kapteyn born 1965: Gemini II launched 2006: Pluto New Horizons launched 1907: Sergei Korolev born 1986: STS-61C Columbia launched 1997: STS-81 Atlantis launched 2005: Deep Impact spacecraft launched 1969: Venera 5 launched 1972: President Nixon approves development of space shuttle 2005: UB313 (Eris) discovered, ignites the Pluto-Planet debate 4 11 25 1970: NASA cancels Apollo 20 Moon landing mission 1787: William Herschel discovers Uranian moons Oberon and Titania 1978: First triple docking: Soyuz 26, Soyuz 27, Salyut 6 1996: STS-72 Endeavour launched 1998: Lunar Prospector arrives at Moon 2002: Gemini South Observatory dedicated 1736: Joseph Lagrange born 1962: NASA authorizes Saturn V rocket 1983: IRAS launched 1994: Clementine spacecraft launched 2004: Opportunity rover lands on Mars Chinese New Year 18 24 3 10 1962: NASA announces Gemini program 2004: Spirit rover lands on Mars 1946: U.S. Army bounces radar signal off the Moon 1969: Venera 6 launched 1978: Cosmos 954 reenters atmosphere 1985: STS-51C Discovery launched 1986: Voyager 2 flies past Uranus 1992: Magellan begins third mapping cycle of Venus 17 31 1958: Explorer 1 launched 1961: Chimp, Ham, suborbital flight 1966: Luna 9 launched 1971: Apollo 14 launched 1985: ESA approves Columbus program 1985: 1,037th and final Aerobee sounding rocket launched It is estimated Russia charges $80 million for a US astronaut to ride on a Soyuz rocket to the International Space Station.

            BYE, BYE, BOOSTERS? Soyuz rockets will continue flying for the foreseeable future, but there are plans for an “eco-friendly” methane-powered Soyuz -7 rocket. Its proposed single-core (boosterless) design would be a radical departure from the Soyuz design. The Soyuz’s fast ten-minute ride to orbit begins at much more modest pace. From left to right, above: the Soyuz is assembled horizontally (in contrast to most US rockets which are built vertically) and is shown here before mating with its upper stage and Soyuz capsule; a train then hauls the rocket, still horizontal, at a walking pace to the launch site 2 km (1.25 mi) away; once at the site, the Soyuz is erected into a vertical launch position.

            • TRAIN RIDE TO OUTER SPACE Soyuz rockets now launch from four locations around the globe. Crewed flights depart the Baikonur Cosmodrome (left, bottom) in southern Kazakhstan; many military satellites are launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome about 800 km (500 mi) north of Moscow; Vostochny Cosmodrome (left, top) in eastern Russia is the newest; the Kourou Space Center in Guiana is where the European Space Agency missions depart. WORLD TRAVELER The Soyuz family of rockets first flew in 1966, but its heritage dates back to the R-7 Semyorka, the world’s first intercontinental ballistic missile, which flew in 1957. The R-7 had a central core of four RD-108 engines surrounded by four booster rockets with clusters of RD-107 engines—a configuration nearly identical to today’s Soyuz rockets. An R-7 variant launched the world’s first satellite, Sputnik (upper left), in 1957. A Vostok variant of the R-7 (below) was developed specifically for human spaceflight, and was the rocket that launched Yuri Gagarin (below left) into orbit in April 1961 on the first human orbital spaceflight. Not including the Soyuz branch, the R-7 family flew successfully over 700 times between 1957 and 2010. LAUNCHER LEGACY A Soyuz launch begins with all four strap-on boosters firing around the main core. After two minutes, the four boosters, now depleted of fuel, are jettisoned while the center stage continues. As seen from the ground, the separation of the four boosters tumbling away creates a pattern known as the Korolev Cross, named for Sergei Korolev, the lead designer of the Russian ballistic missile and space programs through 1966. KOROLEV CROSS SPACE The Year in 5360彩票官网 Wall Calendar See more at YearInSpace.com 5360彩票官网 Calendar Enjoy this award-winning, large-format space calendar all year long!
            • Over 120 space images
            • Sky events, space history, & more!
            • Group discounts available Save 25% $14.95 or less NG ASTRONOMY TO THE ASTRONOMY DAY OCTOBER 5, 2019 For a FREE 76-page Astronomy Day Handbook full of ideas and suggestions, go to: www.astroleague.org Click on "Astronomy Day” Scroll down to "Free Astronomy Day Handbook" For more information, contact: Gary Tomlinson Astronomy Day Coordinator gtomlins@sbcglobal.net The writer used the JPL Horizons software package to determine the visibility of each target for his location. Visibility should be similar for cities near 33° north latitude like Atlanta, Dallas, and San Diego.
            • Year Best Target Alternate target 2019 Moon (waxing crescent, west) Saturn (west) 5360彩票官网 Moon (full) Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars 2021 Jupiter (south) Saturn and Venus (west) 2022 Moon (first quarter, high) Saturn and Jupiter 2023 Saturn (southeast) Jupiter (low in west) 2024 Saturn (southeast) Albireo or something else 2025 Moon (waxing gibbous, east) Saturn (southeast) 2026 Saturn (east) Albireo or something else 2027 Saturn (east) Albireo or something else 2028 Moon (full) Albireo or something else 2029 Venus very low in the west* Albireo or something else 2030 Moon (waxing crescent, west) Albireo or something else *15° above the horizon at sunset, and the altitude decreases afterwards. 019 CelestialSavings Program ALL LEAGUE MEMBERS QUALIFY FOR SPECIAL DISCOUNTS at participating vendors when purchasing equipment, accessories or books. Discounts vary by vendor and by items purchased. Participating vendors include: Astronomics
            • Camera Concepts & Telescopes Galaxy Optics
            • Got Grit
            • Mr. Star Guy Seymour Solar
            • Spectrum Telescope Telescope Adapters
            • Thousand Oaks Optical Vixen Optics Obtain the discount codes by visiting astroleague.org/celestial-savings. Each vendor is listed with the discounts offered for their products, their current discount code, their website URL, and, if appropriate, a contact telephone number. Provide the appropriate discount code to the salesperson or include it in your online order. Questions? Email the Celestial Savings Director at celestialsavings@astroleague.org.
            Next part ... Cancel
            5360彩票官网_5360彩票登录注册 Disclaimer: This website's materials and pictures are sourced from Internet articles. This website does not bear any claims and legal liabilities caused by content information. The copyright of all works belongs to the original author, and has nothing to do with this previous field. If users accidentally infringe your rights and interests, please contact us and we will delete it!

            <option id="lrq7b" ><sup id="lrq7b" ></sup></option>
            <noscript id="lrq7b" ><nobr id="lrq7b" ><label id="lrq7b" ></label></nobr></noscript>
            1. <em id="lrq7b" ></em>
              <div id="lrq7b" ><optgroup id="lrq7b" ></optgroup></div>
              <dfn id="lrq7b" ></dfn>

                <u id="lrq7b" ></u>